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Scroll down this page to explore this interview in several ways.

An Interview Profile summarizes this individual’s role, specialization, and contributions to MD Anderson.

A Table of Contents shows the range of topics covered in each interview session: each chapter title links to a chapter summary.

Chapter Summaries describe the specific topics treated in each section; each summary links to the corresponding recording so you can listen to the chapter.

Here is a link to the full transcript so you may browse and search. (link)

 

 

Interview Profile

 

 

 

Submitted: 14 July 2014​

 

Interview Information:

Two interview sessions in three parts:  3 October 2013, 4 October 2013

Total approximate duration: 8 hours

Interviewer: Tacey A. Rosolowski, Ph.D.

 

About the Interview Subject:

Engineer William Daigneau, M.B.A. (b. 1 June 1946, Mansfield, Ohio) Mr. Daigneau is a leader in healthcare facilities management who came to MD Anderson in 1994 as the Chief Facilities Officer and Vice President for Operations and Facilities Management.  He provided leadership in capital planning, growth, and management during the institution’s most explosive period of growth. He retired in 2013 and has since operated his own consulting business, 3P Management Consulting.  

 

To supporting materials, please contact:

Javier Garza, MSIS, jjgarza@mdanderson.org

 

Major Topics Covered:

Personal and educational background

Evolution of administrative and leadership styles

Issues in healthcare facilities management

The “MD Anderson way of building”; evolution of; legal issues involved; team building required

MD Anderson’s Master Plan: evolution of; the connection between physical plant, research, and patient care: managing growth

Facilities Management: evolution of; client-centered approach; challenges faced; a theory of facilities management

Building projects and other initiatives:

The Three-Building Plan

Mays Ambulatory Clinic

Emergency Plan; Flood Protection System; Hurricane Protection System

Faculty Center

Main Campus expansions

Wayfinding system

Mitchell Basic Sciences Building

Pickens Tower

Rotary House

South Campus [Research Park]

Zayed Institute for Personalized Care

Alkek Hospital Addition

Houston Main Building implosion

 

Regarding the Transcript and Audio Files

In accordance with oral history best practices, this transcript was intentionally created to preserve the conversational language of the interview sessions.  (Language has not been edited to conform to written prose).

The interview subject was given the opportunity to review the transcript.  Any requested editorial changes are indicated in brackets [ ], and the audio file has not correspondingly altered. 

Redactions to the transcript and audio files may have been made in response to the interview subject’s request or to eliminate personal health information in compliance with HIPAA.

The views expressed in this interview are solely the perspective of the interview subject. They are not to be interpreted as the official view of any other individual or of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.


Table of Contents

 

Interview Session One: 3 October 2013

 

Always a Builder
Chapter 01 / Educational Path

 

Early Job Experiences Create an Interest in Management
Chapter 02 / Professional Path

 

An Evolving Perspective on Management
Chapter 03 / Professional Path

 

A Theory of People Management and the Next Career Move
Chapter 04 / Overview

 

University of Rochester and a First Experience with Health Care Institutions
Chapter 05 / Professional Path

 

Lured to MD Anderson: A New Position and The Three-Building Plan
Chapter 06 / Joining MD Anderson/Coming to Texas

 

Background: The Three-Building Plan
Chapter 07 / Building the Institution

 

The Three-Building Plan: Building Relationships, Facing Challenges, Creating the Project Core Team
Chapter 08 / Building the Institution

 

Weather is Part of the Job: A Near Disaster and Developing Emergency Plans for Floods, Wind, and Hurricanes
Chapter 09 / Institutional Processes

 

The MD Anderson Way of Constructing Buildings
Chapter 10 / Building the Institution

 

John Mendelsohn’s Plan for MD Anderson and the First Building Projects— The Mays Clinic and the Faculty Center
Chapter 11 / Building the Institution

 

The New Master Plan: Expanding the Main Campus
Chapter 12 / Building the Institution

 

The Master Plan Brings Special Challenges: The Faculty Center, the Mays Clinic (Ambulatory Clinic Building)
Chapter 13 / Building the Institution

 

Developing the Wayfinding System
Chapter 14 / Building the Institution

 

The Mitchell Basic Sciences Building; Tropical Storm Alison and the Flood-Protection System
Chapter 15 / Building the Institution

 

Pickens Tower, The Research Medical Library, and Rotary House
Chapter 16 / Building the Institution

 

Overview:  A Plan for South Campus [Research Park]
Chapter 17 / Building the Institution

 

 

Interview Session Two: 4 October 2013

 

The Story of Research Park: Strategies to Acquire Land and Collaborators
Chapter 18 / Building the Institution

 

Moving Occupants Into Buildings: Commissioning Buildings and Factors that Drive the Move-In Schedule
Chapter 19 / Institutional Processes

 

Determining Building Efficiency; Pros and Cons of Leasing Space; Mid Campus; Unique Features of the Institute for Personalized Care
Chapter 20 / Building the Institution

 

The Houston Main Building (The Prudential Building): Its Drawbacks and Implosion
Chapter 21 / Building the Institution

 

Transforming Facilities Management
Chapter 22 / An Institutional Unit

 

Gratified to Serve the Institution’s Growth
Chapter 23 / View on Career and Accomplishments

 

Consulting; A Book-In-Progress; and Outdoor Activities
Chapter 24 / Post-Retirement Activities

 

The Alkek Hospital Addition: A Very Difficult Project
Chapter 25 / Building the Institution

 

 


 

 

Chapter Summaries

 

 

Interview Session One:  3 October 2013 (listen/read)

 

Part One: morning session
 

Chapter 00A
Interview Identifier (listen/read)

 

Chapter 01 (Educational Path)
Always a Builder (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • Character, Values, Beliefs, Talents
  • Personal Background
  • Professional Path
  • Influences from People and Life Experiences
  • Evolution of Career

Mr. Daigneau begins this segment with a brief view of his family experience growing up in Cleveland.  He explains his interest early in life in the sciences and engineering.  He notes his fascination with “how things went together: he built a layout of trains in the basement and worked with old gas model airplanes.  He notes that we has a Boy Scout and received an Eagle Scout award.  Next Mr. Daigneau talks about his experience in college at the Case Institute of Technology which would later become Case Western Reserve.  He was shocked to discover how hard he had to work to maintain good grades in college, and struggled in his freshman year.  However “failure was not an option,” and he learned how important it was to be patient, to apply himself, and to recognize the difference between knowledge and memorization.  He received his BS in 1968.

Mr. Daigneau next talks about his decision to study for an MBA.  He explains that his degree from Case Institute was very theoretical, a combination of structural and mechanical engineering to prepare people for the aerospace industry.  He in fact believed he would work for Boeing (and was interviewed) but he didn’t see himself working happily in that setting.

 

Chapter 02 (Professional Path)
Early Job Experiences Create an Interest in Management (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • Character, Values, Beliefs, Talents
  • Personal Background
  • Professional Path
  • Influences from People and Life Experiences
  • Evolution of Career
  • The Administrator
  • Overview

Mr. Daigneau talks about the on-site experience he acquired during his first job at Chicago Bridge and Iron (CBI; hired 1968), where he worked on projects that involved assembling nuclear vessels.  He also notes that his interest in managing people evolved while he was assigned to the Plymouth Station Nuclear Power Plant.  He describes developing a scheduling system for a shop and expecting to be praised, however people didn’t appreciate it.  He also describes how his report on the situation at Plymouth created some political problems and resulted in his transfer. 

Mr. Daigneau then assessed his options and decided to apply for MBA programs.  He took a job in the Public Works Department in Peoria (’70) so he could attend Bradley University.  The Director of Public Works mentored him and made him Chair of the Utilities Commission.

 

Chapter 03 (Professional Path)
An Evolving Perspective on Management (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • Character, Values, Beliefs, Talents
  • Personal Background
  • Professional Path
  • Influences from People and Life Experiences
  • Evolution of Career
  • The Administrator
  • Overview
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work

Mr. Daigneau explains how his work experience in Peoria and his study for his MBA led to his interest in motivation theory and thoughts of studying for a PhD.  He took a job as a construction manager at the University of Iowa in Iowa City and was also accepted in the PhD program.  Mr. Daigneau comments on the challenges of working at an academic institution and notes that he became a “hero” for his work.  He was mentored by key people, but still wasn’t managing people  successfully.  He describes what he enjoyed about working in a university environment and also the limits of this particular position.  Mr. Daigneau decided to leave the University of Iowa (and his PhD program) because he wanted “to manage things.”

Mr. Daigneau next talks about his job as Manager of Physical Plan at University of Wisconsin-Superior (1976).  He notes that he followed prevailing management theory at that time –“managing by objectives.”  Nevertheless he did not see the management results he expected, though this job was a big confidence booster and he “thrived under people how would give a long leash.” 

 

Chapter 04  (Overview)
A Theory of People Management and the Next Career Move (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • Professional Path
  • Influences from People and Life Experiences
  • Evolution of Career
  • The Administrator
  • Overview
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work
  • The Leader
  • Leadership
  • On Leadership
  • On Mentoring

Mr. Daigneau describes lessons he learned about management and his own management style, giving examples.  He says that was “inquisitive about how things work, and if it doesn’t work, then abandon it.”  At this point his ideas about management by objectives changed and he saw the importance of creating an environment where the objectives of individual employees matched those of the company.

Mr. Daigneau then talks about the lack opportunity for promotion in academia, a fact that led him to next take a job as Assistant Vice President at Greeley College, where he stayed for eight years.  He lists his achievements: he developed a master plan that is still being followed and developed the co-generation plant to produce heat and electricity very efficiently.

 

Chapter 05 (Professional Path)
University of Rochester and a First Experience with Health Care Institutions (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • Professional Path
  • Influences from People and Life Experiences
  • Evolution of Career
  • The Administrator
  • Overview
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work
  • The Leader

Mr. Daigneau explains that he found himself at a crossroads at Greeley College when he realized that he did not want to advance to Vice President of Administration.  He was approached by the University of Rochester to become Director of University Facilities, though the medical school and Strong Memorial Hospital were at the time administratively divorced from the rest of the University.  He comments on how organizations can create silos, with negative consequences for efficiency.  He recalls receiving an invitation from Strong Memorial to evaluate its facilities.  Within six months of submitting his report, he was given true responsibility for directing all university facilities and merged all systems to create an integrated system with good efficiency.

[The recorder is paused for about 7 minutes]

Next Mr. Daigneau notes that executive management wants a physical plant manager to deliver results and solve problems, and over the course of his career he was successful in making problems disappear.  He also observes that the main mission of a university is “not to build buildings, but to create and transfer knowledge.”  Facilities management can dovetail with administration and create opportunities for people and for income generation that can serve other purposes.

 

Chapter 06 (Joining MD Anderson/Coming to Texas)
Lured to MD Anderson: A New Position and The Three-Building Plan (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • Joining MD Anderson
  • Professional Path
  • Evolution of Career
  • The Administrator
  • Overview
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work
  • The Leader
  • Ethics

Mr. Daigneau explains that around 1992 he was working with others to conduct Facilities Management Evaluations at the request of institutions.  David Bachrach initiated an invitation that he serve as a team leader of a peer review of the newly begun Three-Building Plan.  Mr. Daigneau explains that he conducted the review and sent the report and later received a call from an executive recruiter on behalf of MD Anderson.  He turned down the job and explains his ethical reservation about taking job as Assistant Vice President for a building plan that arose from service on a peer review team.

Mr. Daigneau next explains that two years later MD Anderson was looking to fill the new role of Chief Facilities Officer (the scope of responsibility for this position was based on one of the recommendations in his report).  Mr. Daigneau explains why he took the position.

 

Chapter 07 (Building the Institution)
Background: The Three-Building Plan (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • Overview
  • MD Anderson History
  • MD Anderson Snapshot
  • MD Anderson Past
  • Institutional Processes
  • Critical Perspectives on MD Anderson
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Multi-disciplinary Approaches
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Institutional Politics

Mr. Daigneau provides an overview of MD Anderson’s scope when he arrived in 1994: the Main Campus, Bastrop, and Smithville, with buildings totaling about 3.5 million square feet.  David Bachrach had just launched the Three-Building Plan (also referred to as the “major building project”) which would add another million square feet.  Mr. Daigneau talks about the management team responsible for the building project and how it fit into the current Master Plan.  He also describes the silos created in the current system and describes Dr. Charles LeMaistre’s management style.  He also explains that translational research was emerging at the time and MD Anderson needed to connect research and clinical activity.  The Three-Building Plan includea new research building with animal and other laboratory space; Alkek Hospital to replace the old hospital, expand operating room space and provide new technology; and the LeMaistre Clinic.  Mr. Daigneau notes that the latter was an “add on” to spend a great deal of cash that MD Anderson had accumulated.

Mr. Daigneau notes that there was no real Master Plan at the time in that there was no vision of how the organization would evolve.  When he arrived, the funding and design of the Three-Building Project was completed and construction on the Alkek had begun.

 

Chapter 08 (Building the Institution)
The Three-Building Plan: Building Relationships, Facing Challenges, Creating the Project Core Team (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • Overview
  • MD Anderson History
  • MD Anderson Snapshot
  • MD Anderson Past
  • Institutional Processes
  • Critical Perspectives on MD Anderson
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Multi-disciplinary Approaches
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Institutional Politics
  • Institutional Mission and Values
  • MD Anderson Culture

The area of the Three-Building Plan: Mitchell Building, Clinical Research Building, Alkek Hospital

Mr. Daigneau discusses the first steps he took on the Three-Building Project.  He began by building direct relationships with those who would be using the buildings. He explains that he didn’t want users to call executive management; he wanted to hear from them directly.  He notes that when he arrived, there was a Department of Design and Engineering that users did not trust; the management level of Physical Plant was also perceived as non-responsive.  His goal was to shorten communication channels so that there were no more than three levels between him and the customer.  Mr. Daigneau explains that he pulled together a Facilities Management Design Group comprised of all supervisors who would plan design for the future. He also met with every section chief at his/her office to say, “Call me directly if you have a problem.”

Mr. Daigneau next explains some structural problems that he addressed.  Construction management was very bureaucratically structured, with all building contracts held by a management company out of Austin, Texas.  This led to a near “train wreck” in the Three-Building Project.  He addressed this by developing a new team and working out a new system for bidding contracts.  He created the Project Core Team (a system that existed until he left MD Anderson) that would include plant operations, planning, design, construction, and executive management. 

Mr. Daigneau next talks about the problems created by the “hard bid” contract system and how it could create problems with delays on the part of the architect or other contractors.  He also explains how worked successfully to modernize the construction contracting rules in Texas, changing legislation to allow a 2-contract system, “hard bid” and “design-build.”  He explains the old and new systems and also tells an anecdote: MD Anderson successfully filed an errors and omissions claim against an architect (the problem was fallout from the contract system) and won the case –the first win of its kind in Texas.  MD Anderson uses hard bid contracts on small projects and a design-build system with a construction manager for large scale projects.

 

Chapter 09 (Institutional Processes)
“Weather is Part of the Job”: Developing Emergency Plans for Floods and Hurricanes (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • MD Anderson History
  • MD Anderson Past
  • Institutional Processes
  • Discovery and Success
  • This is MD Anderson
  • Critical Perspectives on MD Anderson
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work
  • Understanding the Institution

In this segment, Mr. Daigneau explains that serious flooding during the construction of the Alkek Hospital and the Clinical Research Building “was my introduction to rainfall in Houston.”  He notes that all of the linear accelerators for radiation oncology were in the flood area with only two construction doors holding water back from the equipment.  He addressed the deficiency of MD Anderson’s emergency plan, creating Hurricane Manager.  (In learning about hurricanes he thought, “I need to find another job!)  Mr. Daigneau describes the dimensions of this comprehensive emergency plan, how it was drilled, and what it was designed to achieve.

 

Chapter 10 (Building the Institution)
The MD Anderson Way of Constructing Buildings (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • The Administrator
  • MD Anderson History
  • MD Anderson Past
  • Institutional Processes
  • Discovery and Success
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work
  • Understanding the Institution
  • On the Nature of Institutions
  • Technology and R&D

Mr. Daigneau begins this segment with two examples of lessons learned from the Three-Building Plan.  The first came from Alkek Hospital.  The third floor was to house all the diagnostic imaging equipment, but by the time construction reached the third floor, the technology had changed and the most up-to-date equipment would not fit in the rooms.  They had to tear out everything and redesign the rooms.  The second example involves problems with moving users into new buildings.

Mr. Daigneau summarizes the goal that he set for MD Anderson building projects: three years from the statement “I want a building” to moving in.  Because “time is your enemy,” his strategy was to reduce construction time as much as possible and to delay building out shells to the last moment (providing opportunities for needed design changes).  He describes how this works and also sketches other strategies that preserve options in building projects: how to work with architects, how to use the design-build system to an advantage, types of designs to focus on.  He notes that he and others studied how malls are built to exploit ideas about preserving flexibility.

Mr. Daigneau notes that he took pride in the fact that MD Anderson could build faster than anyone in the Texas Medical Center, including private institutions.  He describes the MD Anderson way of building: build fast, don’t make mistakes, and engage everyone who will occupy the building all the way through the process.

 

Chapter 11 (Building the Institution)
John Mendelsohn’s Plan for MD Anderson and the First Building Projects—The Mays Clinic and the Faculty Center (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • The Administrator
  • MD Anderson History
  • MD Anderson Past
  • Institutional Processes
  • Discovery and Success
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work
  • Understanding the Institution
  • On the Nature of Institutions

Mr. Daigneau first reviews the challenge that managed care presented to MD Anderson.  He recalls that Dr. Charles LeMaistre put all expansion plans on hold in reaction to the report on managed care submitted by the Sharp Group (the Sharp Report).  Mr. Daigneau notes that the Archives contain plans he created to close facilities.

In contrast, as Mr. Daigneau explains, Dr. John Mendelsohn arrived and announced the plan to expand the institution by fifty percent. He lists the key people involved in developing the expansion plan and describes how the Master Plan was redrawn to improve space utilization and address the four years of compression created under Dr. LeMaistre.  Mr. Daigneau then talks about two new buildings planned –the Faculty Center and the Ambulatory Clinic Building (also called The Mays Clinic)— and Dr. Andy von Eschenbach’s role in moving this project forward.  He then explains how the new Ambulatory Clinic Building (the Mays Clinic) was designed to maximize clinic capacity.  He tells a story demonstrating Dr. Andrew von Eschenbach’s role in motivating the faculty to move their offices out of the clinic buildings.

[The recorder is turned off for a lunch break.]

 

Part Two: Afternoon session

 

Chapter 00B
Interview Identifier (listen/read)

 

Chapter 12 (Building the Institution)
The New Master Plan: Expanding the Main Campus (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • The Administrator
  • MD Anderson History
  • MD Anderson Past
  • Institutional Processes
  • Discovery and Success
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work
  • Understanding the Institution
  • On the Nature of Institutions

Mr. Daigneau describes challenges he confronted in studying how to add buildings to the main campus and offer patients easy wayfinding.  As there were no easy additions possible for patients, he began to look at the land occupied at the time by Garage 5 (owned by the Texas Medical Center) as well as land occupied by the Psychiatric Hospital, a surface parking lot, and the Dental School.

Mr. Daigneau notes that future expansion, given MD Anderson’s current land holdings, were limited.  However research could be expanded by building to the north of Main Campus.  These possibilities led to the plan of using all existing space for clinical activities while moving administrative offices, building across Holcombe Boulevard in order to expand the latter.

 

Chapter 13 (Building the Institution)
The Master Plan Brings Special Challenges: The Faculty Center, the Mays Clinic (Ambulatory Clinic Building), The Prudential Building (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • The Administrator
  • MD Anderson History
  • MD Anderson Past
  • Institutional Processes
  • Discovery and Success
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work

Mr. Daigneau explains that the new Faculty Center is located on a site of a privately owned parking lot.  Mr. Daigneau tells a story about threatening to use MD Anderson’s power of eminent domain in order to bring the developer that owned the lot to come to the negotiating table.

Mr. Daigneau next explains that he used the design-build system to construct the Faculty Center: this was the first time the system had been used by the UT system for any complex building.  The Faculty Center was completed in record time, fourteen months for thirty-five million dollars.  Moving the faculty offices out of the clinic buildings allowed them see more patients, earning enough money to renovate existing buildings.  Mr. Daigneau next talks about backfill and redevelopment projects totaling nearly 100 million dollars.  He describes the changes required in the Alkek Hospital and LeMaistre Clinics.

Speaking about the Faculty Center, Mr. Daigneau notes that he was able to get the administration to promise that if he would complete the building in the short time frame for the 35 million cost, if it was never used for clinical purposes.  To construct the Faculty Center, he studied office tower buildings.

At the same time, Mr. Daigneau explains, MD Anderson was looking to expand clinical services.  He describes the Houston Main Building (also called The Prudential Building) the institution had acquired in the seventies, a twenty-acre property located at the corner of Fannin Street and Holcombe Boulevard.  He and Kevin Wardell (to whom he reported) decided to locate the ambulatory clinic at this site: a 250,000 square foot clinic to be constructed in 36 months.  Mr. Daigneau explains how the project was eventually expanded to 6000,000+ square feet, though there was no clear determination of who would occupy the building.

Mr. Daigneau next describes the hurdles overcome to insure a rapid building process for the Ambulatory Clinicreation of the site master plan (to include 4 buildings); sorting out transportation and traffic circulation issues within and around the site –a process that involved negotiations with the Texas Medical Center to construct new roadways.  He notes that building went ahead though the occupants had not yet been determined, despite discussions that involved all section heads: Dr. David Callendar eventually decided who would occupy the building.  Mr. Daigneau explains that the design-build process was used –a controversial move on such a complex building and the largest ever constructed in the Texas Medical Center.

Mr. Daigneau explains the construction approach used by adopting a mall-type strategy of determining anchors.  He describes the unique features of the Mays Clinic, decisions made that were critical for the future, some political issues that had to be resolved.  He describes the radiation oncology suites that had windows for the first time (instead of being sunk in the ground) and the way circulation was planned to help with wayfinding.

Next, Mr. Daigneau explains how Dr. Callendar found two volunteers to occupy the site and also outlines why the Mays Clinic is one of the best-planned, comprehensive facilities from the perspective of patient experiences.

 

Chapter 14 (Building the Institution)
Developing the Wayfinding System (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • The Administrator
  • MD Anderson History
  • MD Anderson Past
  • Institutional Processes
  • Discovery and Success
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work
  • Institutional Mission and Values
  • Understanding the Institution
  • Patients, Treatment, Survivors
  • Discovery, Creativity and Innovation

Mr. Daigneau notes that the Ambulatory (Mays) Clinic building project created the wayfinding project and also opened discussions about how to construct an efficient bridge system between buildings.  He explains that he hired a wayfinding consultant that had worked for Disney and developed a system based on visual cues and sequencing of information.  He instructed the consultants to use basic transportation engineering principles to develop signs.  He notes that the signs with Gateway Numbers were borrowed from Disney (and were adopted by the Texas Medical Center after MD Anderson erected them). 

Mr. Daigneau explains how the wayfinding system evolved through the use of focus groups and testing of solutions with patient groups.  He also notes that patients were asked to evaluate furniture choices.  “We were not building for ourselves,” he says.

Mr. Daigneau next talks about how focus was shifted to the bridge system between buildings when there were some near accidents with physicians crossing Holcombe Boulevard.

 

Chapter 15 (Building the Institution)
The Mitchell Basic Sciences Building; Tropical Storm Alison and the Flood-Protection System (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • The Administrator
  • MD Anderson History
  • MD Anderson Past
  • Institutional Processes
  • Discovery and Success
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work
  • Institutional Mission and Values
  • Understanding the Institution

Mr. Daigneau explains that with construction on the Mays Clinic initiated, they were “in the throes of master planning” and two other issues emerge1) the need for a building to house Cancer Prevention and 2) a new research building.  Mr. Daigneau explains the complex process of securing the land from the Texas Medical Center to plan a new research site with six buildings owned by MD Anderson, Baylor, and the Health Science Center.  He describes how he was able to secure the site of Parking Lot K from the Texas Medical Center to build the Mitchell Basic Sciences Building.  He tells a story about constructing the vivarium.

Mr. Daigneau also describes how the Mitchell Basic Sciences Building was designed with a foundation “like a bathtub” that would be absolutely flood proof.  Tropical Storm Alison hit during construction, with a 5-foot wall of water sweeping the Texas Medical Center and dropping into the hole for the Mitchell Building, though damage was minimal because “smart people put up the flood locks.”   Mr. Daigneau explains that they quickly learned that 1) they had to relocate electrical switches from the basement and 2) MD Anderson needed a flood wall that is almost automatic.  Mr. Daigneau explains how MD Anderson secured a FEMA grant to build a flood wall and he describes the wall and other features installed.

[The recorder is paused briefly.]

Mr. Daigneau completes the story of the Mitchell Building, noting that it was the first “fully interstitial” research building constructed by the University of Texas.  He defines interstitial, a concept developed by the NIH.  This is an expensive process, but it maximizes flexibility and is worth it.

Mr. Daigneau notes that because Dr. John Mendelsohn believed in growth, they built two extra floors to accommodate expansion: before construction was completed, they were preparing those two floors for occupancy.  Mr. Daigneau explains why the project went over budget (the only time he had to approach the Regents for more money on a project).

 

Chapter 16 (Building the Institution)
Pickens Tower, The Research Medical Library, and Rotary House (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • The Administrator
  • MD Anderson History
  • MD Anderson Past
  • Institutional Processes
  • Discovery and Success
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work
  • Institutional Mission and Values
  • Understanding the Institution
  • The MD Anderson Ethos
  • MD Anderson Culture
  • The MD Anderson Brand, Reputation

Mr. Daigneau talks about Pickens Tower, which was the next phase of development designed to provide space for faculty outside of clinical areas on the Main Campus.  He explains the decision making behind the faculty fitness center, the food center, and the management of older spaces not suited for research. 

Mr. Daigneau explains that for symbolic reasons, he did not want MD Anderson’s president to occupy the top floor of Pickens Tower.  He wanted the Tower to communicate the philosophy that all State and philanthropic money is used wisely.  He explains that he went to John Mendelsohn with the idea to put the Research Medical Library on the top floor because of the inspiring message it would send about MD Anderson priorities.  The idea “immediately gained traction.”
 

[The recorder is paused briefly.]

Mr. Daigneau completes the story of the Pickens Tower with a discussion about how parking was created and for the first time offered to employees through a tiered rate system linked to income.  He then briefly discusses the expansion to Rotary House, including an addition to the bridge system to improve safety for anyone who would otherwise have to cross busy streets

 

Chapter 17 (Building the Institution)
Overview:  A Plan for South Campus [Research Park] (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • The Administrator
  • MD Anderson History
  • Institutional Processes
  • Discovery and Success
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work
  • MD Anderson in the Future

Mr. Daigneau sketches the plan to develop a research park (referred to as Research Park or South Campus) on 100 acres of land along Old Spanish Trail south of Main Campus, beginning with a research building.  He first explains conversations with the Texas Medical Center and with the National Guard to acquire the land and explains how he used a model of a research park at University of Massachusetts at Amherst to develop the MD Anderson model.  This involved finding other institutions to collaborate on developing the site.  He also describes his concept of a 20-year building, which was the model he selected for Research Building 1, the first to be constructed on the site.

 

Interview Session Two: 4 October 2013 (listen/read)

 

Chapter 00B
Interview Identifier (listen/read)

 

Chapter 18 (Building the Institution)
The Story of Research Park: Strategies to Acquire Land and Collaborators (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • The Administrator
  • MD Anderson History
  • Institutional Processes
  • Discovery and Success
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work
  • MD Anderson in the Future
  • Beyond the Institution
  • MD Anderson and Government

Mr. Daigneau goes into detail about the development of Research Park (and refinement of the Master Plan), beginning with Dr. John Mendelsohn’s invitation to the Health Science Center to embark on a joint development project.  He explains how the 100 acres was subdivided into lots to support buildings of thirty five to fifty thousand square feet.  Mr. Daigneau tells the story of negotiating with the Health Science Center for use of land that currently housed an ecological park used for environmental studies, a process that took a year, with the Regents eventually intervening in MD Anderson’s favor.  He then explains the negotiation process required to develop the roadways and infrastructure and explains how he worked with Governmental Affairs to secure start-up money from the Governor’s office to develop infrastructure. 

Mr. Daigneau also explains why MD Anderson has never been successful in attracting a third collaborator to develop the property.  He then goes on to describe the process of building Research Building 2, a structure that included services demanded by users of Research Building 1, and Research Building 3 –a collaborative effort between MD Anderson and the Health Science Center.  He then mentions other structures added to the campus.

Mr. Daigneau next recalls negotiations over seven years with the National Guard and National Reserve to acquire essential pieces of the 100 acres of land.  He describes failed negotiations with the Department of Defense and then explains how Congressional discussions of base closings helped set the scene for resolution of the problem.  He notes that he worked with Senator Kay Bailey Hutchinson to resolve the problem.

In the final minutes of this segment, Mr. Daigneau lists other structures and parcels of land that are available for further development, noting that MD Anderson controls all the land north of Main Campus and also holds South Campus as areas for research development.  He lists other occupants of South Campus: Physical Plant, Hazardous Waste Processing, and land to build a new vivarium.  Mr. Daigneau also notes the acquisition of East Campus near Alameda.

“It’s like a big jigsaw,” Mr. Daigneau says, “but all planned rather than haphazard.”

 

Chapter 19 (Institutional Processes)
Moving Occupants Into Buildings: Commissioning Buildings and Factors that Drive the Move-In Schedule (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • The Administrator
  • MD Anderson History
  • Institutional Processes
  • Overview
  • Definitions, Explanations, Translations
  • Discovery and Success
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work

Mr. Daigneau explains that the “Move Team” for any building project includes the project director and representatives of users and facilities operators who develop a move schedule and contract moving services.  Mr. Daigneau lists some of the many details that have to be readied prior to a move: telephone and computer systems, key systems, the signage system.  He notes that occupants were moved into Alkek Hospital one floor at a time.  He also explains that the Mays Clinic, the Mitchell Clinical Research Building, and the Cancer Prevention Building were all opening at the same time, creating a drain on facilities staff. 

Mr. Daigneau next talks about the “commissioning process” required before any building opens.  This is a series of tests performed to confirm that all systems are in working order.  He notes that research buildings with laboratories and vivariums are the most difficult to commission, with clinical spaces and office space coming next.  He describes the year-long process of commissioning a vivarium space in order to protect the valuable assets of animals that are unique and genetically specific.  Vivariums will drive the move-in schedule for a research building.  Mr. Daigneau also describes the complex ventilation systems that have to be commissioned.  He then briefly compares operating rooms to research spaces, noting that the latter are much more complex and expensive to build and run than a hospital.   He notes that MD Anderson’s investment in research in terms of space is much greater than its investment in hospital space.

 

Chapter 20 (Building the Institution)
Determining Building Efficiency; Pros and Cons of Leasing Space; Mid Campus; Unique Features of the Institute for Personalized Care (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • The Administrator
  • MD Anderson History
  • Institutional Processes
  • Overview
  • Definitions, Explanations, Translations
  • Discovery and Success
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work
  • Institutional Mission and Values
  • The MD Anderson Brand, Reputation

Mr. Daigneau defines “building efficiency” as the percentage of space occupied by people and notes that MD Anderson his goal was an occupancy of sixty-nine percent or better.  (Patient care areas are always less efficient.)  He explains how efficiency drives operating costs and notes some efficiency thresholds set by the State of Texas.

Next Mr. Daigneau explains that he advocated to get rid of the Houston Main Building because it was very inefficient and expensive to operate.  He also explains the “post-commissioning” process that takes place during the first year of use, where he would fine-tune a building’s mechanical systems to save on costs.

Mr. Daigneau describes the post-occupancy reviews routinely conducted at MD Anderson to provide information used in later building projects.  He gives the example of the Mays Clinic, where extensive reviews were conducted and then compared with other clinics.  The Mays Clinic became a new standard for patients and staff in terms of productivity and satisfaction.

Mr. Daigneau notes that there is a minimal amount of guesswork in his facilities planning processes.  He next talks about how the Mid-Campus Building came about to reduce the amount of space that MD Anderson was obliged to lease.  He notes that MD Anderson was once one of the biggest lessors in the Texas Medical Center (leasing at twenty-five locations) and he lists the pros and cons of leasing space.  He concludes that “you want to own [space] and you want to be able to sell it [when you are done with it].”  This enables MD Anderson to anticipate selling unneeded space, part of what Mr. Daigneau refers to as an “exit strategy.”  He analyzes why the Mid-Campus Building was designed to consolidate functions and reduce costs.  The building paid back its costs in seven years.

Next Mr. Daigneau explains how the planning process for the Mid-Campus Building evolved, expanding the plan from an original 750,000 square feet to 1.3 million square feet, with the top third constructed as a shell to accommodate future uses.  He notes that this structure houses the second data system and separate utility systems.  He also explains how the unusual, bow-shape came about because of Dr. John Mendelsohn’s preference.  He then describes the process of acquiring the land and constructing some of the infrastructure for the building.

Mr. Daigneau next briefly describes the design of the Zayed Institute for Personalized Care (the last building approved while he was at MD Anderson): four towers, two to house offices and two to house laboratories, with external corridors.  He explains that they derived the “cloverleaf” design by taking the best practices from a CDC model and outlines some of the challenges it presented. He also discusses the benefits of the external corridors.

Mr. Daigneau briefly describes the design of the Zayed Institute for Personalized Care (the last building approved while he was at MD Anderson): four towers, two to house offices and two to house laboratories, with external corridors.  He explains that they derived the “cloverleaf” design by taking the best practices from a CDC model and outlines some of the challenges it presented. He also discusses the benefits of the external corridors.

 

 

Chapter 21(Building the Institution)
The Houston Main Building (The Prudential Building): Its Drawbacks and Implosion (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • The Administrator
  • MD Anderson History
  • MD Anderson Past
  • Institutional Processes
  • Overview
  • Definitions, Explanations, Translations
  • Discovery and Success
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work

Mr. Daigneau tells the story of his controversial plans to demolish the Houston Main Building (also called The Prudential Building).  He lists the problems with the building, among them the fact that there was no sprinkler system –a fact that “kept him up nights.”  He also describes how he engaged three groups to study the building in preparation for tear-down.  He explains why the building had no particular historical or architectural significance.  He then talks about the decision to demolish the building once the State Fire Inspector issued instructions to install a sprinkler system.  Mr. Daigneau advocated for demolishing the building, and MD Anderson executives all agreed this would be most cost effective.  He then explains why demolition was held up until 2012.

Mr. Daigneau then describes how he had planned the Mays Clinic and the Duncan Cancer Prevention Building with the demolition of Houston Main in mind.  He explains how the decision was made to implode rather than demolish the building and explains the careful process of selecting the demolition contractor.  He explains the safety processes they observed and the care taken not to disrupt patient activities at MD Anderson and surrounding Texas Medical Center institutions.  He describes the implosion (video available at the website noted[1]) and notes that the site clearing took only six months.

 

Chapter 22 (An Institutional Unit)
Transforming Facilities Management (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • The Administrator
  • Institutional Processes
  • Overview
  • Definitions, Explanations, Translations
  • Discovery and Success
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work

In this segment, Mr. Daigneau discusses changes he brought to Facilities Management during his eighteen years at MD Anderson.  He begins with an overview of his goal when he arriveto combine all facilities management services into one management group.

Mr. Daigneau explains that he created the Facilities Management Design Group to come up with a new plan for integrating Facilities Management services.  The Group’s first goal was to define the products that Facilities Management offers.  They identified three core products: the creation of space (capital); the operation and management of that space; and management of all logistical details that make the campuses work.

Mr. Daigneau next explains that the identification of products served as the basis to reorganize Facilities Management. He talks about how Facilities Management services were organized into two operational groups, Research and Education and Patient Care, to serve  the unique needs of researchers and physicians.  He also lists other groups that reported to Facilities Management under this new organization: Campus Operations and Campus Police, for example.  He notes that in 1994, when he arrived, Facilities Management had 500 employees.  In 2011 it employed over 1700 people.

Mr. Daigneau next explains that the strength of Facilities Management comes from a structure where individuals report to a single person.  This integrates planning and reporting and improves outcomes by keeping all operations under one roof.  He next talks about the challenges that have come with the institution’s rapid growth, notably the difficulty of keeping short communication channels with resulting increases in communication problems. 

Mr. Daigneau talks about his solution to this problem: to improve knowledge and management training lower down in the organization. Mr. Daigneau explains the High Performance Management Program designed to build management and customer service skills among employees.  He talks about how the results of this program were measured and also comments on the overall efficiency of the institution.

 

Chapter 23 (View on Career and Accomplishments)
Gratified to Serve the Institution’s Growth (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • The Administrator
  • Career and Accomplishments
  • On the Nature of Institutions
  • Overview
  • Definitions, Explanations, Translations
  • Discovery and Success
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work
  • MD Anderson Culture
  • Patients
  • Patients, Treatment, Survivors
  • The Life and Dedication of Clinicians and Researchers
  • MD Anderson Snapshot
  • Understanding the Institution
  • Healing, Hope, and the Promise of Research
  • Giving Recognition
  • Institutional Mission and Values
  • MD Anderson Culture
  • The MD Anderson Brand, Reputation

In this segment, Mr. Daigneau looks back on his years at MD Anderson and then talks about his plans for retirement. He expresses his satisfaction that he was able to be personally involved in all aspects of organizing and planning the institution’s growth as well as planning for continued improvement.

Mr. Daigneau explains how he always attempted to move MD Anderson beyond a standard approach to square feet in the institution.  He uses the model of Facilities Management 101, 201, and 301 to explain how he pushed MD Anderson to shift from looking at square feet as simple space, to a set of perspectives about use held by a number of different users.  This is needed to meet his goal: making 80% of patients happy.  When he arrived, he says, everyone at MD Anderson was in 101.  By the time he left he had moved everyone to seeing space in more complicated ways.

Mr. Daigneau next reflects on some lost opportunities, on challenges that came with the growth of the Division, and the need to cultivate leadership among younger people in the Division.  He explains how he attempted to do this by working with Human Resources to create an aptitude test that would identify possible managers, however budget issues made it necessary to suspend this project. 

Mr. Daigneau explains that with the growth of the institution, it is more important than ever that MD Anderson achieve economies of scale.  He notes that Dr. John Mendelsohn was able to achieve growth of the institution’s infrastructure for advanced research as well as the numbers of lives saved.  The reality of modern research is possible because of growth, and MD Anderson states how pleased he is to have been part of that.

 

Chapter 24 (Post-Retirement Activities)
Consulting; A Book-In-Progress; and Outdoor Activities (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • Personal Background
  • Activities Outside Institution
  • Career and Accomplishments
  • Post Retirement Activities
  • Overview
  • Definitions, Explanations, Translations
  • Character, Values, Beliefs, Talents

Mr. Daigneau sketches his activities since he retired.  He owns 3P Management Consulting, dedicated to shifting the focus of management away from outcomes to Product, Processes, and People.  He also talks about the book he is writing, The Three Ps of Management.  He explains that book evolved when he realized that in his last two years at MD Anderson, many functions ran very well without him.  He asked himself, “What did I do right?”  His book that draws heavily on the experiences he gained at MD Anderson.

Mr. Daigneau also notes that he has always balanced his work with other dimensions of life.  He has taken up fly fishing, travels, continues to ski and run marathons. 

 

Chapter 25 (Building the Institution)
The Alkek Hospital Addition: A Very Difficult Project (listen/read)

 

Topics Covered

  • The Administrator
  • MD Anderson History
  • Institutional Processes
  • Overview
  • Definitions, Explanations, Translations
  • Discovery and Success
  • Building/Transforming the Institution
  • Growth and/or Change
  • Obstacles, Challenges
  • Professional Practice
  • The Professional at Work
  • Funny Stories

To close off the interview, Mr. Daigneau shares an anecdote he notes is “the closest I can come to a funny story.”

He describes touring the Alkek Hospital construction site with Gary Campbell just after arriving at MD Anderson.  The columns were just being poured and Mr. Daigneau asked why they were so large.  Campbell replied that the building was designed to take an additional ten floors.  Mr. Daigneau notes that all diagnostic imaging was on the third floor and all the main operating rooms were located on the fifth floor—these functions would be very sensitive to vibration caused by such a construction project.  He said at the time, “I pity the poor son of a gun given the task of building the ten stories.”  Mr. Daigneau then tells the story of how it was decided to add the ten stories.  He explains how a vibration specialist determined it could be done and then gives details of the construction and its challenges.  The process took three years –one year of sorting out details and two for construction.


[1]   Houston Chronicle Video of Implosion: http://blog.chron.com/newswatch/2012/01/prudential-building-in-houston-destroyed/ [date of access 30 October 2013].  Also see:  http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/Prudential-building-scheduled-for-implosion-Sunday-2444072.php  [Date of access, 30 October 2013].

Original Profile

 

This interview with engineer William Daigneau, M.B.A. (b. 1 June 1946, Mansfield, Ohio) takes place on October 3-4, 2013 (duration approximately 8 hours).  Mr. Daigneau is a leader in healthcare facilities management who came to MD Anderson in 1994 as the Chief Facilities Officer and Vice President for Operations and Facilities Management.  He provided leadership in capital planning, growth, and management during the institution’s most explosive period of growth. He retired in 2013.  This interview takes place in Mr. Daigneau’s ski home in Silverthorne, Colorado.  Tacey A. Rosolowski, Ph.D. is the interviewer.

Mr. Daigneau received his B.S. in Engineering from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio in 1968.  While working full time, he went on to earn his M.B.A. from Bradley University in Peoria, Illinois in 1974.  Prior to arriving at MD Anderson, Mr. Daigneau served as Director of University Facilities at the University of Rochester in New York (1987 – 1994).  He began his career as a project Engineer for Chicago Bridge and Iron Company (1968 – 1970).  He later worked as Project Engineer for the City of Peoria in Illinois (1970 – 1974) before entering into management positions in academic settings.  He served as Manager of University Construction for the University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa (1974 – 76), as Director of General Services and Director of Physical Plan for the University of Wisconsin-Superior in Superior, Wisconsin (1976 – 1979), and then as Assistant Vice President of Administrative services, Facilities and Operations at the University of Northern Colorado in Greeley, Colorado (1979 – 1987).  He then took the position at the University of Rochester, his first foray into healthcare facilities management.

Mr. Diagneau has authored numerous publications on capital planning and the role of the facilities manager during uncertain times in publications such as Business Officer and Facilities Manager. He is a frequent lecturer and has received several awards in recognition of his impact on facilities management, including the APPA’s Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers Fellow Award and MD Anderson’s elite President’s Award in recognition of his substantial contributions toward eliminating cancer. (He was the first non-faculty member ever to receive this honor.)  Since retirement, Mr. Daigneau has operated his own consulting business, 3P Management Consulting. 

In this interview, Mr. Daigneau traces the building projects at MD Anderson, offering a detailed (and often surprising) view into construction challenges and successes and underscores the degree to which MD Anderson’s dramatic growth during the nineties and two-thousands resulted from a careful planning process.  He explains how Facilities Management took charge of soliciting feedback from users prior to and after construction to work toward continual improvement of services and products for patients, faculty, and staff.  He offers a fascinating look at the processes essential to the institution’s workings, discussing for example, the development of the emergency plans and services that successfully keep the institution operating during weather threats.  Mr. Daigneau also traces the growth of his interest in people management as a key piece of construction planning and management.  He offers his own theories about how the management of facilities and infrastructure represents a key investment for an institution’s success.

This interview with engineer William Daigneau, M.B.A. (b. 1 June 1946, Mansfield, Ohio) takes place on October 3-4, 2013 (duration approximately 8 hours).  Mr. Daigneau is a leader in healthcare facilities management who came to MD Anderson in 1994 as the Chief Facilities Officer and Vice President for Operations and Facilities Management.  He provided leadership in capital planning, growth, and management during the institution’s most explosive period of growth. He retired in 2013.  This interview takes place in Mr. Daigneau’s ski home in Silverthorne, Colorado.  Tacey A. Rosolowski, Ph.D. is the interviewer.

Mr. Daigneau received his B.S. in Engineering from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio in 1968.  While working full time, he went on to earn his M.B.A. from Bradley University in Peoria, Illinois in 1974.  Prior to arriving at MD Anderson, Mr. Daigneau served as Director of University Facilities at the University of Rochester in New York (1987 – 1994).  He began his career as a project Engineer for Chicago Bridge and Iron Company (1968 – 1970).  He later worked as Project Engineer for the City of Peoria in Illinois (1970 – 1974) before entering into management positions in academic settings.  He served as Manager of University Construction for the University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa (1974 – 76), as Director of General Services and Director of Physical Plan for the University of Wisconsin-Superior in Superior, Wisconsin (1976 – 1979), and then as Assistant Vice President of Administrative services, Facilities and Operations at the University of Northern Colorado in Greeley, Colorado (1979 – 1987).  He then took the position at the University of Rochester, his first foray into healthcare facilities management.

Mr. Diagneau has authored numerous publications on capital planning and the role of the facilities manager during uncertain times in publications such as Business Officer and Facilities Manager. He is a frequent lecturer and has received several awards in recognition of his impact on facilities management, including the APPA’s Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers Fellow Award and MD Anderson’s elite President’s Award in recognition of his substantial contributions toward eliminating cancer. (He was the first non-faculty member ever to receive this honor.)  Since retirement, Mr. Daigneau has operated his own consulting business, 3P Management Consulting. 

In this interview, Mr. Daigneau traces the building projects at MD Anderson, offering a detailed (and often surprising) view into construction challenges and successes and underscores the degree to which MD Anderson’s dramatic growth during the nineties and two-thousands resulted from a careful planning process.  He explains how Facilities Management took charge of soliciting feedback from users prior to and after construction to work toward continual improvement of services and products for patients, faculty, and staff.  He offers a fascinating look at the processes essential to the institution’s workings, discussing for example, the development of the emergency plans and services that successfully keep the institution operating during weather threats.  Mr. Daigneau also traces the growth of his interest in people management as a key piece of construction planning and management.  He offers his own theories about how the management of facilities and infrastructure represents a key investment for an institution’s success.